(1) Dispersibility: Although the total amount of solar radiation reaching the earth's surface is large, the energy density is very low. On average, near the Tropic of Cancer, in the summer, when the weather is relatively fine, the irradiance of solar radiation is the highest at noon, and the average solar energy received in an area of 1 square meter perpendicular to the direction of sunlight is about 1,000 W. Average day and night throughout the year is only about 200W. In the winter, it is only about half, and the cloudy days are generally only about 1/5. This kind of energy flow density is very low. Therefore, in the use of solar energy, in order to obtain a certain conversion power, a set of collection and conversion equipment with a relatively large area is often required, and the cost is high.
(2) Instability: Due to natural conditions such as day and night, seasons, geographic latitude, and altitude, as well as the influence of random factors such as sunny, cloudy, cloud, and rain, the solar irradiance on a certain ground is both intermittent And it is extremely unstable, which makes it difficult for large-scale application of solar energy. In order to make solar energy become a continuous and stable energy source, and eventually become an alternative energy source that can compete with conventional energy sources, it is necessary to solve the energy storage problem well, that is, to store solar radiant energy in sunny daylight as much as possible for night or rain. Used for days, but energy storage is also one of the weaker links in solar energy utilization.
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